Wednesday, May 27, 2015

Highly stressed marmots are less likely to survive hibernation

Another marmot paper is out!

Wey TW, Lin L*, Patton ML, and Blumstein DT. 2015. Stress hormone metabolites predict overwinter survival in yellow-bellied marmots. acta ethologica, 18:181-185. doi: 10.1007/s10211-014-0204-6.

This has been out online for a while at: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10211-014-0204-6
But it just got included in a final paginated print volume.

Here's a quick summary:
There’s quite a lot of information in scat, aka animal feces—yes, poop. One kind of data that can be extracted is how stressed out an animal is. Animal’s produce more stress hormones in response to stressors, stimuli which could range from the threat of a predator to exercise. These hormones are eventually broken down and passed out of the body sometime later in feces. A normal stress response helps animals respond to their environment, but chronic stress can have negative health effects. (Sound familiar? It applies to people, too, of course.) For yellow-bellied marmots, getting ready for hibernation is a huge deal, and in a recent study , we found that the marmots that with very high levels of stress hormone by-products in their feces were less likely to survive the winter. This was true independent of their body weight, but the effect was bigger for skinner marmots, which suggests that being skinny and stressed out is an especially bad combination.



Read on for a more detailed description of the work...
 
Chronic stress can have negative health effects in humans and other animals, and methods to measure stress and its health impacts in wildlife are necessary for research and management. In particular, we want to find non-invasive measures that cause as little harm and stress to animals as possible. Glucocorticoid metabolites (the by-products of stress hormones) excreted in feces reflect the amount of stress hormones produced, and by proxy, the amount of stress response that animal had. Collecting feces is easy and, importantly, does not require drawing blood or other procedures that cause further stress to the animals. Measuring stress this way is, thus, a promising tool for wildlife studies, and in several species, higher levels of these fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGMs) are linked with reduced survival in populations of wild animals. (But, in other species, there is no evidence for this link.)

Yellow-bellied marmots require a lot of energy to hibernate successfully and survive the winter, and a previous study (Smith et al. 2012) confirmed that stressful stimuli resulted in higher levels of FGMs. Therefore, we hypothesized that marmots with the highest levels of FGM levels might be chronically stressed and the most likely to die during winter hibernation. We found that high FGM levels, both those measured over a long time (several months) or only in a short time (two weeks) right before hibernation, predicted lower chances of surviving the winter, as we expected. We also found that FGM levels were a stronger predictor of survival in skinnier marmots. This supports the idea that marmots with high levels of stress hormones are more likely to die during hibernation and that a combination of higher stress and low body weight is especially bad. Measuring stress hormone by-products this way therefore seems like one useful indicator of potential poor health in marmots, and our study adds to a more general understanding of the links between stress and health in wild animals.

Monday, May 18, 2015

Beaver Fever

Today while walking through Gothic "town", I got word that a fox was eating one of our marmots. So I immediately ran over and find the fox with a huge...marmot??? in its mouth.

Well, it looked like a really odd-shaped marmot because this thing had a huge leather flap flopping around. The fox was chomping on half of a beaver! This was a really interesting/perplexing sighting because foxes weigh about 10 kilograms at the most while that beaver was probably 20 kilos. So I really doubt the fox was able to hunt the beaver, and it is a mystery to me how she got hold of this enormous rodent lunch. Let's have a moment of silence for the beaver...and a little praise that it wasn't one of our study animals. I need those data!



Also, yes, this is probably the same fox Lilah took a picture of a while back. Foxes are generally found in monogamous pairs that occupy the same territory, so for a while I couldn't tell them apart. But after several sightings and photos of these guys, I am pretty confident that this is the female. I also think she is currently nursing kits because she passed so close to my cabin the other day that I actually saw her swollen nipples (see photo below). Geez have some decency, you vixen!

 


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Tuesday, May 12, 2015

UCLA Science Poster Day

Well, it's been another fun academic year of research and folks working in our lab are now wrapping up.  Each year, UCLA hosts a Science Poster Day to celebrate undergraduate research and this year I'm really proud of our lab's accomplishments.  We are all pretty collaborative here and this work wouldn't be possible without the help and co-mentorship of Jenn Smith, Erin Boydston, Eric Abelson, Matt Petelle, and Adrianna Maldonado. Thanks guys! All but Ari's focus on marmots, but hey, Ari's doing a cool poster so he gets to be a marmoteer too!

Ana Solis & Stephanie Gee


Ari Kazanjian

Brian Dang

Holly Fuong

Jenny Yang


Kate Keeley

Liz Palmer




Monday, April 27, 2015

some recent publications and links to them...

Here are some recent publications from Team Marmot!  Stay tuned for more in the works...

•Blumstein, D.T., Flores, G., and N.E. Munoz. 2015. Does locomotor ability influence flight initiation distance in yellow-bellied marmots? Ethology 121:434-441. [pdf available]

•Fuong, H., Maldonado-Chaparro, A., and D.T. Blumstein. 2015. Are social attributes associated with alarm calling propensity? Behavioral Ecology 26: 587-592. [pdf available]

•Maldonado-Chaparro, A., Hubbard, L., and D.T. Blumstein. 2015. Group size affects social relationships in yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). Behavioral Ecology [pdf available]

Maldonado-Chaparro, A., Martin, J.G.A., Armitage, K.B., Oli, M.K., and D.T. Blumstein. 2015. Environmentally induced phenotypic variation in wild yellow-bellied marmots. Journal of Mammalogy 96:269-278. [pdf available]

Tuesday, April 21, 2015

Wake up marmots!


Blogger: Lilah Hubbard
It’s that time again! Last week, four of us early-season researchers skied 3.7 miles into our field station, the Rocky Mountain Biological Laboratory (RMBL), to record when the marmots emerge from hibernation. Although the weather over the last few weeks was showing signs for an early spring, we arrived to Colorado just as a huge storm rolled through, dropping up to 13 inches of fresh snow in just one day. The local residents (people and wildlife) of Gothic, Colorado were getting excited about the snow melting and temperatures increasing, but it turns out that Punxsutawney Phil may have predicted correctly: winter may not be over quite yet!
 
As a first-time early-seasoner coming from sunny Los Angeles, I’m pretty excited that the snow is still here and we get to ski around for a while. Yesterday we went up valley to one of our field sites and, using our spotting scopes, we detected 4 yearlings and 2 adults out and about in the snow! One of the yearling marmots, referred to as “Danger” since it has a fur mark of a warning sign, seemed especially excited to run around in the snow and refused to follow her siblings back into the burrow when it started to snow again (I guess the “Danger” fur mark was appropriate)! 

But researchers aren’t the only ones keeping an eye out for marmots… there are a variety of predators in the valley too! Yesterday morning, we saw a hawk circling the field site we were observing. Then, in the afternoon, one of our team members spotted a red fox hanging out near our cabin. After exploring the area for a while, the fox suddenly darted across the road and up onto a huge snow pile. After a few seconds of digging, we realized it was uncovering a secret stash of mice! It munched out on a couple mice right in front of us, and then continued on its way. Who knew that the snow outside our cabin was also a freezer for a fox’s meal?!




 No signs of woken marmots at our other field sites yet, but stay tuned for more updates!

Monday, January 26, 2015

Socially isolated marmots call more

Holly writes:

Adriana, Dan, and I recently published a paper in Behavioral Ecology examining whether social network position influenced marmot alarm calling. We identified two social attributes, popularity and relationship strength, and determined that socially isolated marmots called more frequently during behavioral observations and when caught in traps. We suspect that these marmots are calling directly at predators to try to scare them away or to try to increase their social status within their group. Our results open a pathway for further research dealing with antipredator behaviors and social network position.

This study has recently been picked up in ScienceShots, and hopefully we'll be learning more about these misfit marmots soon!

Ken's featured in Kansas City Star article

Ken was recently featured in a Kansas City Star magazine article about, you guessed it--marmots!